Nordström P, Ballin M, Nordström A
Lancet Reg Health Eur - (-) 100249 [2021-10-18; online 2021-10-18]
The effectiveness of heterologous prime-boost Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccination is currently unknown. From individuals vaccinated with two doses against Covid-19 in Sweden until July 5, 2021 (N=3,445,061), we formed a study cohort including 94,569 individuals that had received heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 / BNT162b2 prime-boost vaccination, 16,402 individuals that received heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 / mRNA-1273 prime-boost vaccination, and 430,100 individuals that received homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 / ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 prime-boost vaccination. In addition, 180,716 individuals were selected who were unvaccinated at the date of vaccination in the corresponding case. Unvaccinated individuals were censored at first dose of any vaccine. Baseline was the date of the second dose of any vaccine, with the same date in the corresponding unvaccinated individual. The outcome included incident symptomatic Covid-19 infection occurring >14 days after baseline. During a mean follow-up time of 76 (range 1-183) days, symptomatic Covid-19 infection was confirmed in 187 individuals with heterologous vaccine schedules (incidence rate: 2.0/100,000 person-days) and in 306 individuals from the unvaccinated control group (incidence rate: 7.1/100,000 person-days). The adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 67% (95% CI, 59-73, P<0.001) for heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 / BNT162b2 prime-boost vaccination, and 79% (95% CI, 62-88, P<0.001) for heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 / mRNA-1273 prime-boost vaccination. When combined and analysed together, the two heterologous vaccine schedules had an effectiveness of 68% (95% CI, 61-74, P<0.001) which was significantly greater (Pinteraction<0.001) than the 50% effectiveness for homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 / ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (95% CI, 41-58, P<0.001). The findings of this study suggest that the use of heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and mRNA prime-boost vaccination is an effective alternative to increase population immunity against Covid-19, including against the Delta variant which dominated the confirmed cases during the study period. These findings could have important implications for vaccination strategies and logistics, and consequently in the battle against the Covid-19 pandemic.