Selvavinayagam ST, Yong YK, Tan HY, Zhang Y, Subramanian G, Rajeshkumar M, Vasudevan K, Jayapal P, Narayanasamy K, Ramesh D, Palani S, Larsson M, Shankar EM, Raju S
Front Med (Lausanne) 9 (-) 887974 [2022-06-13; online 2022-06-13]
The magnitude of protection conferred following recovery from COVID-19 or by vaccine administration, and the duration of protective immunity developed, remains ambiguous. We investigated the factors associated with anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG decay in 519 individuals who recovered from COVID-19 illness or received COVID-19 vaccination with two commercial vaccines, viz., an adenoviral vector-based (AZD1222) and a whole-virion-based inactivated (BBV152) vaccine in Chennai, India from March to December 2021. Blood samples collected during regular follow-up post-infection/-vaccination were examined for anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG by a commercial automated chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). Age and underlying comorbidities were the two variables that were independently associated with the development of a breakthrough infection. Individuals who were >60 years of age with underlying comorbid conditions (viz., hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease) had a ~15 times and ~10 times greater odds for developing a breakthrough infection and hospitalization, respectively. The time elapsed since the first booster dose was associated with attrition in anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, where each month passed was associated with an ebb in the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels by a coefficient of -6 units. Our findings advocate that the elderly with underlying comorbidities be administered with appropriate number of booster doses with AZD1222 and BBV152 against COVID-19.