ACE2: the molecular doorway to SARS-CoV-2.

Medina-Enríquez MM, Lopez-León S, Carlos-Escalante JA, Aponte-Torres Z, Cuapio A, Wegman-Ostrosky T

Cell Biosci 10 (1) 148 [2020-12-30; online 2020-12-30]

The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the host functional receptor for the new virus SARS-CoV-2 causing Coronavirus Disease 2019. ACE2 is expressed in 72 different cell types. Some factors that can affect the expression of the ACE2 are: sex, environment, comorbidities, medications (e.g. anti-hypertensives) and its interaction with other genes of the renin-angiotensin system and other pathways. Different factors can affect the risk of infection of SARS-CoV-2 and determine the severity of the symptoms. The ACE2 enzyme is a negative regulator of RAS expressed in various organ systems. It is with immunity, inflammation, increased coagulopathy, and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we describe the genetic and molecular functions of the ACE2 receptor and its relation with the physiological and pathological conditions to better understand how this receptor is involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In addition, it reviews the different comorbidities that interact with SARS-CoV-2 in which also ACE2 plays an important role. It also describes the different factors that interact with the virus that have an influence in the expression and functional activities of the receptor. The goal is to provide the reader with an understanding of the complexity and importance of this receptor.

Type: Review

PubMed 33380340

DOI 10.1186/s13578-020-00519-8

Crossref 10.1186/s13578-020-00519-8

pii: 10.1186/s13578-020-00519-8
pmc: PMC7772801

Publications 7.1.2