J Intensive Care Med - (-) 8850666211051960 [2021-11-25; online 2021-11-25]
Thrombosis and bleeding after implementation of an intermediate-dose prophylactic anticoagulation protocol in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a multicenter screening study Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common among critically ill patients with COVID-19. Information regarding VTE prevalence and bleeding complications after implementation of intermediate-dose prophylactic anticoagulation in such patients is, however, limited. Methods: We performed a prospective, observational study in 6 ICUs in 2 university-affiliated teaching hospitals in Sweden. After implementation of an intermediate-dose prophylactic anticoagulation protocol, we performed ultrasound screening for proximal lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and collected routine computed tomography pulmonary angiography exam results. Results: A total of 100 COVID-19 patients were included from June 21, 2020, through February 18, 2021. During a median follow-up of 120 (IQR, 89-134) days, we found VTE in 37 patients with the majority (78.4%) being diagnosed after ICU arrival. Overall, 20 patients had proximal lower-extremity DVT with 95% being detected on ultrasound screening; 22 patients had pulmonary vascular thrombosis; and 4 patients had venous thrombosis at other sites. A total of 6 patients had both proximal lower-extremity DVT and pulmonary vascular thrombosis. On univariate logistic regression analysis of 14 baseline characteristics, only pre-existing heart failure was associated with VTE (OR 4.67, 95% CI 1.13-19.34). Major and non-major bleeding occurred in 10 and 18 patients, respectively. Conclusions: In our cohort of ICU patients with COVID-19, we observed a high prevalence of VTE and bleeding complications after implementation of intermediate-dose anticoagulation. In approximately half of patients, VTE was identified on screening ultrasound.