Risk Factors for COVID-19 and Respiratory Tract Infections during the Coronavirus Pandemic.

Mockeliunas L, van Wijk RC, Upton CM, Peter J, Diacon AH, Simonsson USH

Vaccines 12 (3) - [2024-03-19; online 2024-03-19]

(1) Background: Some individuals are more susceptible to developing respiratory tract infections (RTIs) or coronavirus disease (COVID-19) than others. The aim of this work was to identify risk factors for symptomatic RTIs including COVID-19 and symptomatic COVID-19 during the coronavirus pandemic by using infection incidence, participant baseline, and regional COVID-19 burden data. (2) Methods: Data from a prospective study of 1000 frontline healthcare workers randomized to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination or placebo, and followed for one year, was analyzed. Parametric time-to-event analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with (a) non-specific symptomatic respiratory tract infections including COVID-19 (RTIs+COVID-19) and (b) symptomatic RTIs confirmed as COVID-19 using a polymerase chain reaction or antigen test (COVID-19). (3) Results: Job description of doctor or nurse (median hazard ratio [HR] 1.541 and 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.299-1.822), the reported COVID-19 burden (median HR 1.361 and 95% CI 1.260-1.469 for 1.4 COVID-19 cases per 10,000 capita), or a BMI > 30 kg/m2 (median HR 1.238 and 95% CI 1.132-1.336 for BMI of 35.4 kg/m2) increased the probability of RTIs+COVID-19, while positive SARS-CoV-2 serology at enrollment (median HR 0.583 and 95% CI 0.449-0.764) had the opposite effect. The reported COVID-19 burden (median HR 2.372 and 95% CI 2.116-2.662 for 1.4 COVID-19 cases per 10,000 capita) and a job description of doctor or nurse (median HR 1.679 and 95% CI 1.253-2.256) increased the probability of developing COVID-19, while smoking (median HR 0.428 and 95% CI 0.284-0.648) and positive SARS-CoV-2 serology at enrollment (median HR 0.076 and 95% CI 0.026-0.212) decreased it. (4) Conclusions: Nurses and doctors with obesity had the highest probability of developing RTIs including COVID-19. Non-smoking nurses and doctors had the highest probability of developing COVID-19 specifically. The reported COVID-19 burden increased the event probability, while positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG serology at enrollment decreased the probability of RTIs including COVID-19, and COVID-19 specifically.

Category: Health

Type: Journal article

PubMed 38543963

DOI 10.3390/vaccines12030329

Crossref 10.3390/vaccines12030329

pmc: PMC10974083
pii: vaccines12030329

Publications 9.5.0