Hergens MP, Bell M, Haglund P, Sundström J, Lampa E, Nederby-Öhd J, Östlund MR, Cars T
Eur J Epidemiol - (-) - [2022-01-27; online 2022-01-27]
Since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, the scientific community has explored determinants of Covid 19 disease severity. However, the majority of studies are based on in-hospital patients with high risk of collider- or selection bias. The present investigation details risk factors associated with overall mortality, hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) admission in Covid-19 infections, with complete population coverage and high-resolution data on patient characteristics and comorbid conditions This population-based observational study comprises all residents 18 years and older in Stockholm Region-1.8 million inhabitants-using the real-time Covid-19 monitoring framework. The observation period lasted between March 1 to December 31, 2020. Hazard ratios (HR) for risk factors of Covid-19 disease severity were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. In total, 3322 deaths, 11,508 hospitalizations and 1423 ICU-admissions related to Covid-19 occurred during the study period. Kidney failure, diabetes and obesity increased risk of mortality and so did heart failure and ischemic heart disease. However, atrial fibrillation and hypertension did not. Risk of hospitalization follow a similar pattern, whereas admission to intensive care differs; triage processes where clearly present as certain co-morbid conditions were associated with lower ICU admission. Observed differences in risk of mortality and hospitalization among patients with Covid 19 raise important questions about potentially protective comedication which will be further addressed using the real-time Covid-19 monitoring framework.