Global case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by continents and national income: a meta-analysis.

Ghayda RA, Lee KH, Han YJ, Ryu S, Hong SH, Yoon S, Jeong GH, Yang JW, Lee HJ, Lee J, Lee JY, Effenberger M, Eisenhut M, Kronbichler A, Solmi M, Li H, Jacob L, Koyanagi A, Radua J, Park MB, Aghayeva S, Ahmed MLCB, Serouri AA, Al-Shamsi HO, Amir-Behghadami M, Baatarkhuu O, Bashour H, Bondarenko A, Camacho-Ortiz A, Castro F, Cox H, Davtyan H, Douglas K, Dragioti E, Ebrahim S, Ferioli M, Harapan H, Mallah SI, Ikram A, Inoue S, Jankovic S, Jayarajah U, Jesenak M, Kakodkar P, Kebede Y, Kifle M, Koh D, Males VK, Kotfis K, Lakoh S, Ling L, Llibre-Guerra J, Machida M, Makurumidze R, Mamun M, Masic I, Van Minh H, Moiseev S, Nadasdy T, Nahshon C, √Ďamendys-Silva SA, Yongsi BN, Nielsen HB, Nodjikouambaye ZA, Ohnmar O, Oksanen A, Owopetu O, Parperis K, Perez GE, Pongpirul K, Rademaker M, Rosa S, Sah R, Sallam D, Schober P, Singhal T, Tafaj S, Torres I, Smith Torres-Roman J, Tsartsalis D, Tsolmon J, Tuychiev L, Vukcevic B, Wanghi G, Wollina U, Xu R, Yang L, Zaidi Z, Smith L, Shin JI

J Med Virol - (-) - [2022-01-31; online 2022-01-31]

The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's CFR by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. Based on the data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR were estimated based on the different geographical regions and level of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors and the mitigatory efforts of individuals countries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Category: Health

Type: Journal article

PubMed 35099819

DOI 10.1002/jmv.27610

Crossref 10.1002/jmv.27610

Publications 9.5.0