Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis due to vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia in middle-income countries.

van de Munckhof A, Borhani-Haghighi A, Aaron S, Krzywicka K, van Kammen MS, Cordonnier C, Kleinig TJ, Field TS, Poli S, Lemmens R, Scutelnic A, Lindgren E, Duan J, Arslan Y, van Gorp EC, Kremer Hovinga JA, G√ľnther A, Jood K, Tatlisumak T, Putaala J, Heldner MR, Arnold M, de Sousa DA, Wasay M, Arauz A, Conforto AB, Ferro JM, Coutinho JM, Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Study Group

Int J Stroke - (-) 17474930231182901 [2023-06-30; online 2023-06-30]

Adenovirus-based COVID-19 vaccines are extensively used in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Remarkably, cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis due to vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (CVST-VITT) have rarely been reported from LMICs. We studied the frequency, manifestations, treatment, and outcomes of CVST-VITT in LMICs. We report data from an international registry on CVST after COVID-19 vaccination. VITT was classified according to the Pavord criteria. We compared CVST-VITT cases from LMICs to cases from high-income countries (HICs). Until August 2022, 228 CVST cases were reported, of which 63 were from LMICs (all middle-income countries [MICs]: Brazil, China, India, Iran, Mexico, Pakistan, Turkey). Of these 63, 32 (51%) met the VITT criteria, compared to 103 of 165 (62%) from HICs. Only 5 of the 32 (16%) CVST-VITT cases from MICs had definite VITT, mostly because anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies were often not tested. The median age was 26 (interquartile range [IQR] 20-37) versus 47 (IQR 32-58) years, and the proportion of women was 25 of 32 (78%) versus 77 of 103 (75%) in MICs versus HICs, respectively. Patients from MICs were diagnosed later than patients from HICs (1/32 [3%] vs. 65/103 [63%] diagnosed before May 2021). Clinical manifestations, including intracranial hemorrhage, were largely similar as was intravenous immunoglobulin use. In-hospital mortality was lower in MICs (7/31 [23%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11-40]) than in HICs (44/102 [43%, 95% CI 34-53], p = 0.039). The number of CVST-VITT cases reported from LMICs was small despite the widespread use of adenoviral vaccines. Clinical manifestations and treatment of CVST-VITT cases were largely similar in MICs and HICs, while mortality was lower in patients from MICs.

Category: Health

Category: Vaccines

Type: Journal article

PubMed 37277922

DOI 10.1177/17474930231182901

Crossref 10.1177/17474930231182901

Publications 9.5.0