Cost of the COVID-19 pandemic versus the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies in EU/UK/OECD: a systematic review.

Vardavas C, Zisis K, Nikitara K, Lagou I, Marou V, Aslanoglou K, Athanasakis K, Phalkey R, Leonardi-Bee J, Fernandez E, Condell O, Lamb F, Sandmann F, Pharris A, Deogan C, Suk JE

BMJ Open 13 (10) e077602 [2023-10-31; online 2023-10-31]

The economic burden of COVID-19 pandemic is substantial, with both direct and indirect costs playing a significant role. A systematic literature review was conducted to estimate the cost of the COVID-19 pandemic and the cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical interventions. All cost data were adjusted to the 2021 Euro, and interventions compared with null. Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from January 2020 through 22 April 2021. Studies regarding COVID-19 outbreak or public health preparedness measures or interventions with outcome measures related to the direct and indirect costs for disease and preparedness and/or response in countries of the European Union (EU), the European Economic Area (EEA), the UK and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) of all relevant epidemiological designs which estimate cost within the selected time frame were considered eligible. Studies were searched, screened and coded independently by two reviewers with high measure of inter-rater agreement. Data were extracted to a predefined data extraction sheet. The risk of bias was assessed using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria checklist. We included data from 41 economic studies. Ten studies evaluated the cost of the COVID-19 pandemic, while 31 assessed the cost-benefit of public health surveillance, preparedness and response measures. Overall, the economic burden of the COVID-19 pandemic was found to be substantial. Community screening, bed provision policies, investing in personal-protective-equipment and vaccination strategies were cost-effective. Physical distancing measures were associated with health benefits; however, their cost-effectiveness was dependent on the duration, compliance and the phase of the epidemic in which it was implemented. COVID-19 pandemic is associated with substantial short-term and long-term economic costs to healthcare systems, payers and societies, while interventions including testing and screening policies, vaccination and physical distancing policies were identified as those presenting cost-effective options to deal with the pandemic, dependent on population vaccination and the Re at the stage of the pandemic.

Category: Other

Type: Journal article

PubMed 37907290

DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2023-077602

Crossref 10.1136/bmjopen-2023-077602

pmc: PMC10619092
pii: bmjopen-2023-077602

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