Nyström K, Hjorth M, Fust R, Nilsdotter-Augustinsson Å, Larsson M, Niward K, Nyström S
Infect Dis . 2020 Dec 10;20(1):942. 22 (1) 362 [2022-04-11; online 2022-04-11]
The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 virus, the cause of COVID-19, is complex. Antibody mediated responses are important for viral clearance but may also drive hyperinflammation in severe COVID-19. We present a case of an individual with a genetic inability to produce antibodies and severe COVID-19, receiving no other specific anti-viral treatment than convalescent COVID-19 plasma, illustrating that hyperinflammation can occur in the absence of a humoral anti-viral response. In addition, the case illustrates that the assessment of SARS-CoV-2 T cell responses can facilitate clinical decision making in patients with COVID-19 and weak or absent humoral immune responses. A male with X-linked agammaglobulinemia on regular immunoglobulin replacement therapy, hospitalized for 35 days due to severe COVID-19. Systemic inflammatory parameters were highly elevated. After treatment with convalescent COVID-19 plasma he became afebrile and the fatigue diminished. He was discharged on day 42 and nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR eventually was negative on day 49. Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells prior to administration of plasma therapy suggested that antibodies were crucial for viral clearance. Regular assessment showed robust and persistent SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell responses after recovery suggested that prophylactic administration of convalescent COVID-19 plasma was unnecessary. Assessment of SARS-CoV-2T-cell responses can facilitate the clinical management of COVID-19 patients with humoral immunodeficiencies.