Tetui M, Grindrod K, Waite N, VanderDoes J, Taddio A
Hum Vaccin Immunother - (-) 2089500 [2022-06-20; online 2022-06-20]
Many people have negative experiences with vaccination due to stress-related reactions including fear and pain. We used a pre-post study design to evaluate the impact of implementing a modified version of the CARD (Comfort-Ask-Relax-Distract) system on stress-related reactions in individuals aged 12 y or older undergoing COVID-19 vaccinations in mass vaccination clinics. Vaccine recipients reported their level of pain, fear and dizziness during vaccination. Clinic staff reported their attitudes about CARD and use of CARD interventions. CARD improved client symptoms across genders and ages with an average reduction in needle pain, fear and dizziness of 75%, 40% and 44%, respectively. CARD was more effective in younger individuals. Clinic staff reported positive attitudes about CARD and uptake of selected CARD interventions. In summary, the modified CARD system reduced stress-related responses in a general population undergoing COVID-19 vaccinations in a mass vaccination clinic, was feasible and acceptable to staff. Future implementation efforts are recommended that include more diverse cultural contexts and incorporate education of individuals about CARD ahead of time.