Cruz R, Almeida SD, Heredia ML, Quintela I, Ceballos FC, Pita G, Lorenzo-Salazar JM, González-Montelongo R, Gago-Domínguez M, Porras MS, Castaño JAT, Nevado J, Aguado JM, Aguilar C, Aguilera-Albesa S, Almadana V, Almoguera B, Alvarez N, Andreu-Bernabeu Á, Arana-Arri E, Arango C, Arranz MJ, Artiga MJ, Baptista-Rosas RC, Barreda-Sánchez M, Belhassen-Garcia M, Bezerra JF, Bezerra MAC, Boix-Palop L, Brion M, Brugada R, Bustos M, Calderón EJ, Carbonell C, Castano L, Castelao JE, Conde-Vicente R, Cordero-Lorenzana ML, Cortes-Sanchez JL, Corton M, Darnaude MT, De Martino-Rodríguez A, Campo-Pérez V, Bustamante AD, Domínguez-Garrido E, Luchessi AD, Eirós R, Sanabria GME, Fariñas MC, Fernández-Robelo U, Fernández-Rodríguez A, Fernández-Villa T, Gil-Fournier B, Gómez-Arrue J, Álvarez BG, Quirós FGB, González-Peñas J, Gutiérrez-Bautista JF, Herrero MJ, Herrero-Gonzalez A, Jimenez-Sousa MA, Lattig MC, Borja AL, Lopez-Rodriguez R, Mancebo E, Martín-López C, Martín V, Martinez-Nieto O, Martinez-Lopez I, Martinez-Resendez MF, Martinez-Perez Á, Mazzeu JA, Macías EM, Minguez P, Cuerda VM, Silbiger VN, Oliveira SF, Ortega-Paino E, Parellada M, Paz-Artal E, Santos NPC, Pérez-Matute P, Perez P, Pérez-Tomás ME, Perucho T, Pinsach-Abuin ML, Pompa-Mera EN, Porras-Hurtado GL, Pujol A, León SR, Resino S, Fernandes MR, Rodríguez-Ruiz E, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Rodriguez-Garcia JA, Ruiz-Cabello F, Ruiz-Hornillos J, Ryan P, Soria JM, Souto JC, Tamayo E, Tamayo-Velasco A, Taracido-Fernandez JC, Teper A, Torres-Tobar L, Urioste M, Valencia-Ramos J, Yáñez Z, Zarate R, Nakanishi T, Pigazzini S, Degenhardt F, Butler-Laporte G, Maya-Miles D, Bujanda L, Bouysran Y, Palom A, Ellinghaus D, Martínez-Bueno M, Rolker S, Amitrano S, Roade L, Fava F, Spinner CD, Prati D, Bernardo D, Garcia F, Darcis G, Fernández-Cadenas I, Holter JC, Banales JM, Frithiof R, Duga S, Asselta R, Pereira AC, Romero-Gómez M, Nafría-Jiménez B, Hov JR, Migeotte I, Renieri A, Planas AM, Ludwig KU, Buti M, Rahmouni S, Alarcón-Riquelme ME, Schulte EC, Franke A, Karlsen TH, Valenti L, Zeberg H, Richards B, Ganna A, Boada M, Rojas I, Ruiz A, Sánchez P, Real LM, SCOURGE Cohort Group , HOSTAGE Cohort Group , GRA@CE Cohort Group , Guillen-Navarro E, Ayuso C, González-Neira A, Riancho JA, Rojas-Martinez A, Flores C, Lapunzina P, Carracedo Á
Hum Mol Genet - (-) - [2022-06-16; online 2022-06-16]
Here we describe the results of a genome-wide study conducted in 11 939 COVID-19 positive cases with an extensive clinical information that were recruited from 34 hospitals across Spain (SCOURGE consortium). In sex-disaggregated genome-wide association studies for COVID-19 hospitalization, genome-wide significance (p < 5x10-8) was crossed for variants in 3p21.31 and 21q22.11 loci only among males (p = 1.3x10-22 and p = 8.1x10-12, respectively), and for variants in 9q21.32 near TLE1 only among females (p = 4.4x10-8). In a second phase, results were combined with an independent Spanish cohort (1598 COVID-19 cases and 1068 population controls), revealing in the overall analysis two novel risk loci in 9p13.3 and 19q13.12, with fine-mapping prioritized variants functionally associated with AQP3 (p = 2.7x10-8) and ARHGAP33 (p = 1.3x10-8), respectively. The meta-analysis of both phases with four European studies stratified by sex from the Host Genetics Initiative confirmed the association of the 3p21.31 and 21q22.11 loci predominantly in males and replicated a recently reported variant in 11p13 (ELF5, p = 4.1x10-8). Six of the COVID-19 HGI discovered loci were replicated and an HGI-based genetic risk score predicted the severity strata in SCOURGE. We also found more SNP-heritability and larger heritability differences by age (<60 or ≥ 60 years) among males than among females. Parallel genome-wide screening of inbreeding depression in SCOURGE also showed an effect of homozygosity in COVID-19 hospitalization and severity and this effect was stronger among older males. In summary, new candidate genes for COVID-19 severity and evidence supporting genetic disparities among sexes are provided.