Neuropathological findings in Down syndrome, Alzheimer's disease and control patients with and without SARS-COV-2: preliminary findings.

Granholm AE, Englund E, Gilmore A, Head E, Yong WH, Perez SE, Guzman SJ, Hamlett ED, Mufson EJ

Acta Neuropathol 147 (1) 92 [2024-05-27; online 2024-05-27]

The SARS-CoV-2 virus that led to COVID-19 is associated with significant and long-lasting neurologic symptoms in many patients, with an increased mortality risk for people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and/or Down syndrome (DS). However, few studies have evaluated the neuropathological and inflammatory sequelae in postmortem brain tissue obtained from AD and people with DS with severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. We examined tau, beta-amyloid (Aβ), inflammatory markers and SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein in DS, AD, and healthy non-demented controls with COVID-19 and compared with non-infected brain tissue from each disease group (total n = 24). A nested ANOVA was used to determine regional effects of the COVID-19 infection on arborization of astrocytes (Sholl analysis) and percent-stained area of Iba-1 and TMEM 119. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies labeled neurons and glial cells in the frontal cortex of all subjects with COVID-19, and in the hippocampus of two of the three DS COVID-19 cases. SARS-CoV-2-related alterations were observed in peri-vascular astrocytes and microglial cells in the gray matter of the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and para-hippocampal gyrus. Bright field microscopy revealed scattered intracellular and diffuse extracellular Aβ deposits in the hippocampus of controls with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections. Overall, the present preliminary findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infections induce abnormal inflammatory responses in Down syndrome.

Category: Health

Category: Imaging

Type: Journal article

PubMed 38801558

DOI 10.1007/s00401-024-02743-9

Crossref 10.1007/s00401-024-02743-9

pmc: PMC11130011
pii: 10.1007/s00401-024-02743-9

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