Nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 Infections and Mortality During Unique COVID-19 Epidemic Waves.

Dave N, Sjöholm D, Hedberg P, Ternhag A, Granath F, Verberk JDM, Johansson AF, van der Werff SD, Nauclér P

JAMA Netw Open 6 (11) e2341936 [2023-11-01; online 2023-11-01]

Quantifying the burden of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infections and associated mortality is necessary to assess the need for infection prevention and control measures. To investigate the occurrence of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infections and associated 30-day mortality among patients admitted to hospitals in Region Stockholm, Sweden. A retrospective, matched cohort study divided the period from March 1, 2020, until September 15, 2022, into a prevaccination period, early vaccination and pre-Omicron (period 1), and late vaccination and Omicron (period 2). From among 303 898 patients 18 years or older living in Region Stockholm, 538 951 hospital admissions across all hospitals were included. Hospitalized admissions with nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infections were matched to as many as 5 hospitalized admissions without nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 by age, sex, length of stay, admission time, and hospital unit. Nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection defined as the first positive polymerase chain reaction test result at least 8 days after hospital admission or within 2 days after discharge. Primary outcome of 30-day mortality was analyzed using time-to-event analyses with a Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusted for age, sex, educational level, and comorbidities. Among 2193 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections or reinfections (1107 women [50.5%]; median age, 80 [IQR, 71-87] years), 2203 nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified. The incidence rate of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infections was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.51-1.64) per 1000 patient-days. In the matched cohort, 1487 hospital admissions with nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infections were matched to 5044 hospital admissions without nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infections. Thirty-day mortality was higher in the prevaccination period (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 2.97 [95% CI, 2.50-3.53]) compared with period 1 (AHR, 2.08 [95% CI, 1.50-2.88]) or period 2 (AHR, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.92-1.60]). Among patients with nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infections, 30-day AHR comparing those with 2 or more doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and those with less than 2 doses was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.46-0.88). In this matched cohort study, nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infections were associated with higher 30-day mortality during the early phases of the pandemic and lower mortality during the Omicron variant wave and after the introduction of vaccinations. Mitigation of excess mortality risk from nosocomial transmission should be a strong focus when population immunity is low through implementation of adequate infection prevention and control measures.

Category: Health

Category: Public Health

Funder: VR

Type: Journal article

PubMed 37948082

DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.41936

Crossref 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.41936

pmc: PMC10638644
pii: 2811647

Publications 9.5.0