Hassan MM, El Zowalaty ME, Lundkvist Å, Järhult JD, Khan Nayem MR, Tanzin AZ, Badsha MR, Khan SA, Ashour HM
Trends Food Sci Technol 111 (-) 141-150 [2021-05-00; online 2021-02-03]
The agricultural food products industry in Bangladesh depends on utilizing antimicrobials indiscriminately as growth promoters and for controlling infectious diseases. Thus, there is always a risk of antimicrobial agent accumulation in food sources that originate from agricultural production. In the present study, we collected data from published articles between January, 2013 and December, 2019 on antimicrobial residues in human food sources such as meat, milk, eggs, and fishes. Liver contained the highest percentage of antimicrobial residues (74%; 95% CI: 59.66-85.37) against the invitro enteric pathogen Escherichia coli in layer chickens. Similar results were demonstrated in liver (68%; 95% CI: 53.30-80.48) and kidney (66%, 95% CI: 51.23-78.79) of layer chickens against Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. Amongst all antibiotics, the highest concentrations of ciprofloxacin were detected in kidney (48.57%; 95% CI: 31.38-66.01), followed by liver (47.56; 95% CI: 40.88-54.30) of broiler chickens. Ciprofloxacin was also present in liver (46.15%; 95% CI: 33.70-58.96) of layer chickens. The percentage of ciprofloxacin in thigh and breast meat in broiler bird were 41.54% (95% CI: 34.54-48.79) and 37.95% (95% CI: 31.11-45.15) respectively. Enrofloxacin was the second most dominant antimicrobial agent and was present in the liver of both types of poultry (Broiler and Layer chickens: 41.54%; 95% CI: 29.44-54.4 and 437.33%; 95% CI: 30.99-44.01). The prevalence rates of enrofloxacin in thigh and breast meat of broiler chickens were 24.10% (95% CI: 18.28-30.73) and 20.51% (95% CI: 15.08-26.87), respectively. Tetracycline, a commonly used antibiotic in livestock, was present in the liver (49.23%; 95% CI: 36.60-61.93) of layer chickens. In case of aquaculture food products, the highest amount of amoxicillin (683.2 mg/kg) was detected in Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus), followed by 584.4 mg/kg in climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) and 555.6 mg/kg in Rui fish (Labeo rohita). Among the five types of fishes, Rui fish (0.000515 mg/kg) contained the highest concentrations of chloramphenicol antibiotic residues. The presence of antimicrobial residues in meat, milk, egg, and fish is a serious public health threat due to the potential induction of antimicrobial resistance. It can negatively impact the food supply chain, especially with the current strain that it is already facing with the current COVID-19 pandemic. The findings of the present study highlight the ongoing risk of residual antimicrobial agents in food of animal origin in Bangladesh and countries with similar practices. This can draw the attention of public health officials to propose plans to mitigate or stop this practice.