Marin R, Runvik H, Medvedev A, Engblom S
Epidemics 45 (-) 100715 [2023-08-24; online 2023-08-24]
In an effort to provide regional decision support for the public healthcare, we design a data-driven compartment-based model of COVID-19 in Sweden. From national hospital statistics we derive parameter priors, and we develop linear filtering techniques to drive the simulations given data in the form of daily healthcare demands. We additionally propose a posterior marginal estimator which provides for an improved temporal resolution of the reproduction number estimate as well as supports robustness checks via a parametric bootstrap procedure. From our computational approach we obtain a Bayesian model of predictive value which provides important insight into the progression of the disease, including estimates of the effective reproduction number, the infection fatality rate, and the regional-level immunity. We successfully validate our posterior model against several different sources, including outputs from extensive screening programs. Since our required data in comparison is easy and non-sensitive to collect, we argue that our approach is particularly promising as a tool to support monitoring and decisions within public health. Significance: Using public data from Swedish patient registries we develop a national-scale computational model of COVID-19. The parametrized model produces valuable weekly predictions of healthcare demands at the regional level and validates well against several different sources. We also obtain critical epidemiological insights into the disease progression, including, e.g., reproduction number, immunity and disease fatality estimates. The success of the model hinges on our novel use of filtering techniques which allows us to design an accurate data-driven procedure using data exclusively from healthcare demands, i.e., our approach does not rely on public testing and is therefore very cost-effective.