Pre- and post-vaccination characteristics and risk factors for COVID-19 outcomes in a Swedish population-based cohort of COPD patients.

Kirui BK, Santosa A, Vanfleteren LEGW, Li H, Franzén S, Stridsman C, Nyberg F

ERJ Open Res 9 (3) - [2023-05-00; online 2023-06-26]

Evidence on risk factors for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes among patients with COPD in relation to COVID-19 vaccination remains limited. The objectives of the present study were to characterise determinants of COVID-19 infection, hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death in COPD patients in their unvaccinated state compared to when vaccinated. We included all COPD patients in the Swedish National Airway Register (SNAR). Events of COVID-19 infection (test and/or healthcare encounter), hospitalisation, ICU admission and death were identified from 1 January 2020 to 30 November 2021. Using adjusted Cox regression, associations between baseline sociodemographics, comorbidities, treatments, clinical measurements and COVID-19 outcomes, during unvaccinated and vaccinated follow-up time, were analysed. The population-based COPD cohort included 87 472 patients, among whom 6771 (7.7%) COVID-19 infections, 2897 (3.3%) hospitalisations, 233 (0.3%) ICU admissions and 882 (1.0%) COVID-19 deaths occurred. During unvaccinated follow-up, risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation and death increased with age, male sex, lower education, non-married status and being foreign-born. Comorbidities increased risk of several outcomes, e.g. respiratory failure for infection and hospitalisation (adjusted hazard ratios (HR) 1.78, 95% CI 1.58-2.02 and 2.51, 2.16-2.91, respectively), obesity for ICU admission (3.52, 2.29-5.40) and cardiovascular disease for mortality (2.80, 2.16-3.64). Inhaled COPD therapy was associated with infection, hospitalisation and death. COPD severity was also associated with COVID-19, especially hospitalisation and death. Although the risk factor panorama was similar, COVID-19 vaccination attenuated HRs for some risk factors. This study provides population-based evidence on predictive risk factors for COVID-19 outcomes and highlights the positive implications of COVID-19 vaccination for COPD patients.

Category: Health

Category: Vaccines

Funder: Hjärt-Lungfonden

Type: Journal article

PubMed 37377661

DOI 10.1183/23120541.00711-2022

Crossref 10.1183/23120541.00711-2022

pmc: PMC10291311
pii: 00711-2022

Publications 9.5.0