Boknäs N, Laine C, Hillarp A, Macwan AS, Gustafsson KM, Lindahl TL, Holmström M
Thromb Res 213 (-) 97-104 [2022-03-18; online 2022-03-18]
In this single-center cohort study, we applied a panel of laboratory markers to characterize hemostatic function in 217 consecutive patients that underwent testing for COVID-19 as they were admitted to Linköping University Hospital between April and June 2020. In the 96 patients that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19+), the cumulative incidences of death and venous thromboembolism were 24.0% and 19.8% as compared to 12.4% (p = 0.031) and 11.6% (p = 0.13) in the 121 patients that tested negative (COVID-19-). In COVID-19+ patients, we found pronounced increases in plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and fibrinogen. Excess mortality was observed in COVID-19+ patients with the following aberrations in hemostatic markers: high D-dimer, low antithrombin or low plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP) formation, with Odds Ratios (OR) for death of 4.7 (95% confidence interval (CI95) 1.7-12.9; p = 0.003) for D-dimer >0.5 mg/L, 5.9 (CI95 1.8-19.7; p = 0.004) for antithrombin (AT) ˂0.85 kIU/l and 4.9 (CI95 1.3-18.3; p = 0.019) for PAP < 1000 μg/L. Compounding increases in mortality was observed in COVID-19+ patients with combined defects in markers of fibrinolysis and coagulation, with ORs for death of 15.7 (CI95 4.3-57; p < 0.001) for patients with PAP <1000 μg/L and D-dimer >0.5 mg/L and 15.5 (CI95 2.8-87, p = 0.002) for patients with PAP <1000 μg/L and AT ˂0.85 kIU/L. We observed an elevated fraction of incompletely degraded D-dimer fragments in COVID-19+ patients with low PAP, indicating impaired fibrinolytic breakdown of cross-linked fibrin.