Prior physical illness predicts death better than acute physiological derangement on intensive care unit admission in COVID-19: A Swedish registry study.

Stattin K, Hultström M, Frithiof R, Lipcsey M, Kawati R

PLoS One 18 (9) e0292186 [2023-09-27; online 2023-09-27]

COVID-19 is associated with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay and considerable mortality. The onset of persistent critical illness, defined as when prior illness predicts death better than acute physiological derangement, has not been studied in COVID-19. This national cohort study based on the Swedish Intensive Care Registry (SIR) included all patients admitted to a Swedish ICU due to COVID-19 from 6 March 2020 to 9 November 2021. Simplified Acute Physiology Score-3 (SAPS3) Box 1 was used as a measure of prior illness and Box 3 as a measure of acute derangement to evaluate the onset and importance of persistent critical illness in COVID-19. To compare predictive capacity, the area under receiver operating characteristic (AUC) of SAPS3 and its constituent Box 1 and 3 was calculated for 30-day mortality. In 7 969 patients, of which 1 878 (23.6%) died within 30 days of ICU admission, the complete SAPS3 score had acceptable discrimination: AUC 0.75 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.76) but showed under prediction in low-risk patients and over prediction in high-risk patients. SAPS3 Box 1 showed markedly better discrimination than Box 3 (AUC 0.74 vs 0.65, P<0,0001). Using custom logistic models, the difference in predictive performance of prior and acute illness was validated, AUC 0.76 vs AUC 0.69, p<0.0001. Prior physical illness predicts death in COVID-19 better than acute physiological derangement during ICU stay, and the whole SAPS3 score is not significantly better than just prior illness. The results suggests that COVID-19 may exhibit similarities to persistent critical illness immediately from ICU admission, potentially because of long median ICU length-of-stay. Alternatively, the variables in the acute physiological derangement model may not adequately capture the severity of illness in COVID-19.

Category: Public Health

Funder: Hjärt-Lungfonden

Funder: KAW/SciLifeLab

Funder: VR

Topics: Register-based research

Type: Journal article

PubMed 37756328

DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0292186

Crossref 10.1371/journal.pone.0292186

pmc: PMC10529545
pii: PONE-D-23-04974

Publications 9.5.0