Niessl J, Sekine T, Buggert M
Semin Immunol 55 (-) 101505 [2021-06-00; online 2021-10-21]
Exceptional efforts have been undertaken to shed light into the biology of adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. T cells occupy a central role in adaptive immunity to mediate helper functions to different arms of the immune system and are fundamental to mediate protection, control, and clearance of most viral infections. Even though many questions remain unsolved, there is a growing literature linking specific T cell characteristics to differential COVID-19 severity and vaccine outcome. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in acute and convalescent COVID-19. Further, we discuss the T cell literature coupled to pre-existing immunity and vaccines and highlight the need to look beyond blood to fully understand how T cells function in the tissue space.