Characteristics and risk factors of COVID-19 breakthrough infections in Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies: Results from the COVAD study.

Hoff LS, Naveen R, Sen P, Day J, Joshi M, Nune A, Nikiphorou E, Saha S, Tan AL, Shinjo SK, Ziade N, Velikova T, Milchert M, Jagtap K, Parodis I, Edgar Gracia-Ramos A, Cavagna L, Kuwana M, Knitza J, Chen YM, Makol A, Agarwal V, Patel A, Pauling JD, Wincup C, Barman B, Zamora Tehozol EA, Rojas Serrano J, García-De La Torre I, Colunga-Pedraza IJ, Merayo-Chalico J, Chibuzo OC, Katchamart W, Akarawatcharangura Goo P, Shumnalieva R, El Kibbi L, Halabi H, Vaidya B, Shaharir SS, Hasan ATMT, Dey D, Toro Gutiérrez CE, Caballero-Uribe CV, Lilleker JB, Salim B, Gheita T, Chatterjee T, Distler O, Saavedra MA, COVAD study group , Chinoy H, Agarwal V, Aggarwal R, Gupta L

Rheumatology (Oxford) - (-) - [2024-03-02; online 2024-03-02]

To explore prevalence, characteristics and risk factors of COVID-19 breakthrough infections (BIs) in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) using data from the COVID-19 Vaccination in Autoimmune Diseases (COVAD) study. A validated patient self-reporting e-survey was circulated by the COVAD study group to collect data on COVID-19 infection and vaccination in 2022. BIs were defined as COVID-19 occurring ≥14 days after 2 vaccine doses. We compared BIs characteristics and severity among IIMs, other autoimmune rheumatic and non-rheumatic diseases (AIRD, nrAID), and healthy controls (HC). Multivariable Cox regression models assessed the risk factors for BI, severe BI and hospitalisations among IIMs. Among 9449 included response, BIs occurred in 1447 (15.3%) respondents, median age 44 years (IQR 21), 77.4% female, and 182 BIs (12.9%) occurred among 1406 IIMs. Multivariable Cox regression among IIMs showed age as a protective factor for BIs [Hazard Ratio (HR)=0.98, 95%CI = 0.97-0.99], hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine use were risk factors (HR = 1.81, 95%CI = 1.24-2.64, and HR = 3.79, 95%CI = 1.69-8.42, respectively). Glucocorticoid use was a risk factor for severe BI (HR = 3.61, 95%CI = 1.09-11.8). Non-White ethnicity (HR = 2.61, 95%CI = 1.03-6.59) was a risk factor for hospitalisation. Compared with other groups, patients with IIMs required more supplemental oxygen therapy (IIM = 6.0% vs AIRD = 1.8%, nrAID = 2.2%, and HC = 0.9%), intensive care unit admission (IIM = 2.2% vs AIRD = 0.6%, nrAID, and HC = 0%), advanced treatment with antiviral or monoclonal antibodies (IIM = 34.1% vs AIRD = 25.8%, nrAID = 14.6%, and HC = 12.8%), and had more hospitalisation (IIM = 7.7% vs AIRD = 4.6%, nrAID = 1.1%, and HC = 1.5%). Patients with IIMs are susceptible to severe COVID-19 BI. Age and immunosuppressive treatments were related to the risk of BIs.

Category: Health

Category: Vaccines

Type: Journal article

PubMed 38430474

DOI 10.1093/rheumatology/keae128

Crossref 10.1093/rheumatology/keae128

pii: 7617840

Publications 9.5.0