Nat Commun 14 (1) 4919 [2023-08-15; online 2023-08-15]
Migrants have been more affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Whether this has varied over the course of the pandemic remains unknown. We examined how inequalities in intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death related to COVID-19 by country of birth have evolved over the course of the pandemic, while considering the contribution of social conditions and vaccination uptake. A population-based cohort study was conducted including adults living in Sweden between March 1, 2020 and June 1, 2022 (n = 7,870,441). Poisson regressions found that migrants from Africa, Middle East, Asia and European countries without EU28/EEA, UK and Switzerland had higher risk of COVID-19 mortality and ICU admission than Swedish-born. High risks of COVID-19 ICU admission was also found in migrants from South America. Inequalities were generally reduced through subsequent waves of the pandemic. In many migrant groups socioeconomic status and living conditions contributed to the disparities while vaccination campaigns were decisive when such became available.