Akhtar Z, Trent M, Moa A, Tan TC, Fröbert O, MacIntyre CR
Eur Heart J Suppl 25 (Suppl A) A42-A49 [2023-02-00; online 2023-02-14]
COVID-19 is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. COVID-19 vaccination may prevent this, but in some cases, COVID-19 vaccination may cause myocarditis or pericarditis. Patients with COVID-19 may present with non-specific symptoms that have a cardiac origin. This review examines the cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 infection and the impact of COVID-19 vaccination. COVID-19 cardiovascular complications include myocardial injury, pericarditis, coagulopathy, myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrhythmias, and persistent post-acute risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Diagnostic and referral pathways for non-specific symptoms, such as dyspnoea and fatigue, remain unclear. COVID-19 vaccination is cardioprotective overall but is associated with myopericarditis in young males, though at a lower rate than following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Increased awareness among primary care physicians of potential cardiovascular causes of non-specific post-COVID-19 symptoms, including in younger adults, such as fatigue, dyspnoea, and chest pain, is essential. We recommend full vaccination with scheduled booster doses, optimal management of cardiovascular risk factors, rapid treatment of COVID-19, and clear diagnostic, referral, and management pathways for patients presenting with non-specific symptoms to rule out cardiac complications.