ACS Nano - (-) - [2021-09-02; online 2021-09-02]
The successful control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is not only relying on the development of vaccines, but also depending on the storage, transportation, and administration of vaccines. Ideally, nucleic acid vaccine should be directly delivered to proper immune cells or tissue (such as lymph nodes). However, current developed vaccines are normally treated through intramuscular injection, where immune cells do not normally reside. Meanwhile, current nucleic acid vaccines must be stored in a frozen state that may hinder their application in developing countries. Here, we report a separable microneedle (SMN) patch to deliver polymer encapsulated spike (or nucleocapsid) protein encoding DNA vaccines and immune adjuvant for efficient immunization. Compared with intramuscular injection, SMN patch can deliver nanovaccines into intradermal for inducing potent and durable adaptive immunity. IFN-γ+CD4/8+ and IL-2+CD4/8+ T cells or virus specific IgG are significantly increased after vaccination. Moreover, in vivo results show the SMN patches can be stored at room temperature for at least 30 days without decreases in immune responses. These features of nanovaccines-laden SMN patch are important for developing advanced COVID-19 vaccines with global accessibility.