Lundberg L, Bygdell M, Stukat von Feilitzen G, Woxenius S, Ohlsson C, Kindblom JM, Leach S
Vaccine - (-) - [2021-06-22; online 2021-06-22]
It has been hypothesised that the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine may afford cross-protection against SARS-CoV-2 which may contribute to the wide variability in disease severity of Covid-19. We employed a test negative case-control study, utilising a recent measles outbreak during which many healthcare workers received the MMR vaccine, to investigate the potential protective effect of MMR against SARS-CoV-2 in 5905 subjects (n = 805 males, n = 5100 females). The odds ratio for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, in recently MMR-vaccinated compared to not recently MMR-vaccinated individuals was 0.91 (95% CI 0.76, 1.09). An interaction analysis showed a significant interaction for sex. After sex-stratification, the odds ratio for testing positive for males was 0.43 (95% CI 0.24, 0.79, P = 0.006), and 1.01 (95% CI 0.83, 1.22, P = 0.92) for females. Our results indicate that there may be a protective effect of the MMR vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in males but not females.