Kumar A, Ladha A, Choudhury A, Ikbal AMA, Bhattacharjee B, Das T, Gupta G, Sharma C, Sarbajna A, Mandal SC, Choudhury MD, Ali N, Slama P, Rezaei N, Palit P, Tiwari ON
Expert Rev Vaccines - (-) 1-16 [2022-05-31; online 2022-05-31]
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has emerged as one of the biggest global health issues. Spike protein (S) and nucleoprotein (N), the major immunogenic components of SARS-CoV-2, have been shown to be involved in the attachment and replication of the virus inside the host cell. Several investigations have shown that the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein can elicit a cell-mediated immune response capable of regulating viral replication and lowering viral burden. However, the development of an effective vaccine that can stop the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 remains a matter of concern. Literature was retrieved using the keywords COVID-19 vaccine, role of nucleoprotein as vaccine candidate, spike protein, nucleoprotein immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, and chimera vaccine in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google. We have focussed on the use of chimera protein, consisting of N and S-1 protein components of SARS-CoV-2, as a potential vaccine candidate. This may act as a polyvalent mixed recombinant protein vaccine to elicit a strong T and B cell immune response, which will be capable of neutralizing the wild and mutated variants of SARS-CoV-2, and also restricting its attachment, replication, and budding in the host cell.