Lesny P, Anderson M, Cloherty G, Stec M, Haase-Fielitz A, Haarhaus M, Santos C, Lucas C, Macario F, Haase M
J Nephrol - (-) - [2021-05-29; online 2021-05-29]
Dialysis patients are at risk for lower SARS-CoV-2-vaccine immunogenicity than the normal population. We assessed immunogenicity to a first mRNA- or vector-based SARS-CoV-2-vaccination dose in dialysis patients. In a multicenter observational pilot study, 2 weeks after a first vaccination (BNT162b2/Pfizer-BioNTech [Comirnaty] or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/Oxford-Astra-Zeneca [Vaxzevria]), hemodialysis patients (N = 23), peritoneal dialysis patients (N = 4) and healthy staff (N = 14) were tested for SARS-CoV-2-spike IgG/IgM, Nucleocapsid-protein-IgG-antibodies and plasma ACE2-receptor-binding-inhibition capacity. Hemodialysis patients who had had prior COVID-19 infection (N = 18) served as controls. Both response to first SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and IgG spike-positivity following prior COVID-19 infection were defined as SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG levels ≥ 50 AU/mL. Vaccination responder rates were 17.4% (4/23) in hemodialysis patients, 100% (4/4) in peritoneal dialysis patients and 57.1% (8/14) in staff (HD vs. PD: p = 0.004, HD vs. staff: p = 0.027). Among hemodialysis patients, type of vaccine (Comirnaty N = 11, Vaxzevria N = 12, 2 responders each) did not appear to influence antibody levels (IgG spike: Comirnaty median 0.0 [1.-3. quartile 0.0-3.8] versus Vaxzevria 4.3 [1.6-20.1] AU/mL, p = 0.079). Of responders to the first dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among hemodialysis patients (N = 4/23), median IgG spike levels and ACE2-receptor-binding-inhibition capacity were lower than that of IgG spike-positive hemodialysis patients with prior COVID-19 infection (13/18, 72.2%): IgG spike: median 222.0, 1.-3. quartile 104.1-721.9 versus median 3794.6, 1.-3. quartile 793.4-9357.9 AU/mL, p = 0.015; ACE2-receptor-binding-inhibition capacity: median 11.5%, 1.-3. quartile 5.0-27.3 versus median 74.8%, 1.-3. quartile 44.9-98.1, p = 0.002. Two weeks after their first mRNA- or vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, hemodialysis patients demonstrated lower antibody-related response than peritoneal dialysis patients and healthy staff or unvaccinated hemodialysis patients following prior COVID-19 infection.